Sample Registration System (SRS) bulletinApprox Read Time: 7 minutes
- The Registrar General and Census commissioner of India, recently released its Sample Registration System (SRS) bulletin based on data collected for 2018.
- The SRS is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other indicators at the national and sub-national levels.
Sample Registration System 2018 report:
- Birth rate is a crude measure of fertility of a population and a crucial determinant of population growth.
- India’s birth rate has declined drastically over the last four decades from 36.9 in 1971 to 20.0 in 2018.
- The rural-urban differential has also narrowed. However, the birth rate has continued to be higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the last four decades.
- There has been about an 11 per cent decline in birth rate in the last decade, from 22.5 in 2009 to 20.0 in 2018. The corresponding decline in rural areas is 24.1 to 21.6, and in urban areas, it is 18.3 to 16.7.
- Bihar has the highest birth rate at 26.2 and Andaman and Nicobar Islands at 11.2 has the lowest birth rate.
- Mortality is one of the basic components of population change and the related data is essential for demographic studies and public health administration.
- The death rate of India has witnessed a significant decline over the last four decades from 14.9 in 1971 to 6.2 in 2018. The decline has been steeper in rural areas.
- In the last decade, death rate at an all-India level has declined from 7.3 to 6.2. The corresponding decline in rural areas is 7.8 to 6.7 and in urban areas is 5.8 to 5.1.
- Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate at 8 and Delhi, an almost entirely urban state, has a rate of 3.3, indicating better healthcare facilities.
Infant Mortality Rate:
- Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths under one year of age, per 1,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during a year.
- As per the data released the infant mortality rate is 32, which is about one-fourth as compared to 1971 (129).
- In the last 10 years, IMR at an all-India level has declined from 50 to 32. The percentage decline in rural areas is 35% and in urban areas is 32%.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest IMR of 48 and Nagaland has the lowest IMR of 4.
Deaths in 0-4 year age group:
- Deaths in the 0-4 year age group account for 20% of total deaths or one in every five in Madhya Pradesh. In contrast, deaths in this age group account for just 2% or one in fifty of total deaths in Kerala.
- A high proportion of deaths in the 0-4 age group is not unique to MP and is the case among states with poor development indices, which include Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar in that order.
- Such a high proportion of deaths in this age group is clearly because of the high under-five mortality rate (the probability of dying before 5 years of age for every 1,000 newborns) in these states.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest under-five mortality rate of 56 and Kerala has the lowest of 10.
- Other than Kerala, the proportion of deaths in the 0-4 age group is low in Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra in that order. Expectedly, these states also have relatively low under-five mortality rates.
Rural urban divide in deaths in the 0-4 age group:
- In India as a whole and in most states, the deaths in the 0-4 age group constitute a higher proportion of total deaths in rural than in urban areas.
- The biggest gap in the proportion of deaths in the 0-4 age group between rural and urban areas is in Assam, where deaths in urban areas are just 6% of total deaths and 16.5% in rural Assam.
- Similarly, in Madhya Pradesh, the proportion is just 13.4% in urban areas and 22% in rural areas.
- This gap could be an indication of very poor health facilities in rural areas compared to the urban centres of a state.
Data on Marriage of women:
- As per the report, the percentage of women marrying at age 21 years and above is as high as 64.5% at the national level.
- At the national level, the mean age of marriage for females in the year 2018 is 22.3 years and varies from 21.8 years in rural areas to 23.4 years in urban areas.
- However, the data points at a worrisome fact that the percentage of girls who were married before reaching 18 years of age was 2.3%, which is the legal age of marriage for a woman.
- In rural India, 2.6% girls were married before the age of 18 and in urban areas, the percentage was 1.6%
- Among states the percentage of below 18 – year – old married girls ranged from 0.9% in Kerala to 3.7% in West Bengal. After West Bengal the other two states with the highest percentage of girls married below 18 years was in Rajasthan at 3.5% and Bihar at 3.2%.
Data on marital status:
- In 2018, of the total population, 3% people were married and 3.5% constituted of widowed, divorced and separated men and women.
- At the national level, 43.2% of the males were married and the percentage of females who were married was 49.5%.
- Further, among those widowed, divorced or separated the percentage of women female population is significantly higher at 5.5% than males at 1.6%.
About: Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India
- Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, was founded in 1961 for arranging, conducting and analyzing the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.
- The Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs.