Modi skips NAM summit againApprox Read Time: 3 minutes
What’s the Context?: (Modi skips NAM summit)
- PM Modi is going to miss the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit for second time in a row.
- Vice-President Venkaiah Nadu will represent India at the 19th NAM summit in Baku, Azerbaijan.
- This reflects India’s move away from the principles of NAM, yet India has maintained that it is committed to the principles and objectives of NAM as well as support for the Palestinian cause.
- Absence of PM Modi from the NAM summit for the second time indicates that India is moving away from the NAM concept and has adopted an approach of ‘issue-based alignment’.
- There are several reasons for this:
- Changing geo-political balance, as well as forces of globalization and transformational technological progress.
- Change in long-held assumption and alignments based in colonialism and the ideology of the Cold War.
- The theme for the Summit in Baku is “Upholding the Bandung Principles to ensure concerted and adequate response to the challenges of contemporary world”.
- India has raised several key issues at the summit.
- Key Issues are:
- Importance of reforming international structures to pursue a positive and forward-looking agenda.
- The concept of ‘reformed multilateralism’, that is, a democratic, effective, flexible, credible, transparent and representative, multilateral order. This would help avoid misuse of multilateral platforms.
- The expansion of the UN Security Council.
- To form a working group on terror, thereby taking an unambiguous position similar to apartheid and colonialism. India advocated the finalization of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) that it had proposed in 1996.
- Non-Aligned Movement is an international organization of countries that do not want to be officially aligned with or against any major power bloc.
- It began with the ‘Bandung Process’ in 1956.
- It was created and founded during the collapse of colonialism and during Cold War.
- NAM does not have a formal constitution or permanent secretariat and decisions are made by consensus.
- Its founding members are: India, Indonesia, former Yugoslavia, Egypt and Syria.
- Objective of NAM is – ‘create an independent path in world politics that would not result in member States becoming pawns in the struggles between the major powers.’
Ten principles of Bandung
- The ten principles of Bandung was later adopted as goals of the policy of non-alignment. These are:
- Respect of fundamental human rights and of the objectives and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
- Respect of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
- Recognition of the equality among all races and of the equality among all nations, both large and small.
- Non-intervention or non-interference into the internal affairs of another -country.
- Respect of the right of every nation to defend itself, either individually or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
- Non-use of collective defence pacts to benefit the specific interests of any of the great powers. Non-use of pressures by any country against other countries.
- Refraining from carrying out or threatening to carry out aggression, or from using force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country.
- Peaceful solution of all international conflicts in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
- Promotion of mutual interests and of cooperation.
- Respect of justice and of international obligations.
Importance of NAM:
- NAM has served important purpose. These include:
- Preservation of world peace and security.
- Abolition of apartheid and colonialism by supporting small African countries.
- Defending human rights.
- Working towards making UN more effective.
Challenges to NAM:
- Current challenges facing the NAM which have reduced its relevance include:
- Shift towards multilateralism and bilateralism to further narrow interests.
- Ineffectiveness in tackling environmental degradation, external debt, terrorism, ethnic conflicts.
Importance to India:
- NAM is important for India in order to:
- Help India garner support for reforms of UN Security Council.
- Consolidate India’s position as a world leader in raising support for LDC (Least developed countries).
- Establish effective consensus for tackling terrorism worldwide.